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Basic Usage

Picking the right Driver

Assuming you are using scrapli to connect to one of the five "core" platforms, you should almost always use the provided corresponding "core" driver. For example if you are connecting to an Arista EOS device, you should use the EOSDriver. You can select this driver "manually" or using the scrapli factory Scrapli (or the async scrapli factory AsyncScrapli).

Importing your driver manually looks like this:

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from scrapli.driver.core import EOSDriver

If you are using asyncio, you can use the async variant of the driver:

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from scrapli.driver.core import AsyncEOSDriver

The core drivers and associated platforms are outlined below:

Platform/OS Scrapli Driver Scrapli Async Driver Platform Name
Cisco IOS-XE IOSXEDriver AsyncIOSXEDriver cisco_iosxe
Cisco NX-OS NXOSDriver AsyncNXOSDriver cisco_nxos
Cisco IOS-XR IOSXRDriver AsyncIOSXRDriver cisco_iosxr
Arista EOS EOSDriver AsyncEOSDriver arista_eos
Juniper JunOS JunosDriver AsyncJunosDriver juniper_junos

All drivers can be imported from scrapli.driver.core.

If you would rather use the factory class to dynamically select the appropriate driver based on a platform string (as seen in the above table), you can do so as follows:

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from scrapli import Scrapli

device = {
   "host": "172.18.0.11",
   "auth_username": "scrapli",
   "auth_password": "scrapli",
   "auth_strict_key": False,
   "platform": "cisco_iosxe"
}

conn = Scrapli(**device)
conn.open()
print(conn.get_prompt())

Note that the Scrapli and AsyncScrapli classes inherit from the NetworkDriver and AsyncNetworkDriver classes respectively, so all editor code completion and type indicating behavior should work nicely! For non "core " platforms please see the scrapli_community project.

If you are working with a platform not listed above (and/or is not in the scrapli community project), you have three options:

  1. You can use the (base)Driver driver directly, which you can read about here
  2. You can use the GenericDriver which you can read about here
  3. You can use the NetworkDriver which is similar to option 2 but you will need to understand/provide privilege /prompt information so scrapli can properly escalate/deescalate to/from configuration (or other) modes.

In general you should probably simply create a scrapli community platform (read about adding a platform here, but failing that the GenericDriver is probably the simplest path forward.

Note: if you are using async you must set the transport to asyncssh or asynctelnet!

Basic Driver Arguments

The drivers of course need some information about the device you are trying to connect to. The most common arguments to provide to the driver are outlined below:

Argument Purpose/Value
host name/ip of host to connect to
port port of host to connect to (defaults to port 22)
auth_username username for authentication
auth_password password for authentication
auth_secondary password for secondary authentication (enable password)
auth_private_key private key for authentication
auth_strict_key strict key checking -- TRUE by default!
ssh_config_file True/False or path to ssh config file to use

These arguments may be passed as keyword arguments to the driver of your choice, or, commonly are passed via dictionary unpacking as show below:

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXRDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

conn = IOSXRDriver(**my_device)
conn.open()

NOTE that scrapli enables strict host key checking by default!

Opening and Closing a Connection

scrapli does not open the connection for you when creating your scrapli connection object in normal operations, you must manually call the open method prior to sending any commands to the device as shown below.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXRDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

conn = IOSXRDriver(**my_device)
conn.open()
response = conn.send_command("show version")

Connections can be closed by calling the close method:

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conn.close()

scrapli also supports using a context manager (with block), when using the context manager the connection will be automatically opened and closed for you.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    response = conn.send_command("show version")

Sending Commands

When using any of the core network drivers (JunosDriver, EOSDriver, etc.) or the GenericDriver, the send_command and send_commands methods will respectively send a single command or list of commands to the device.

When using the core network drivers, the command(s) will be sent at the default_desired_privilege_level level which is typically "privilege exec" (or equivalent) privilege level. Please see Driver Privilege Levels in the advanced usage section for more details on privilege levels. As the GenericDriver doesn't know or care about privilege levels you would need to manually handle acquiring the appropriate privilege level for you command yourself if using that driver.

Note the different methods for sending a single command versus a list of commands!

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

conn = IOSXEDriver(**my_device)
conn.open()
response = conn.send_command("show version")
responses = conn.send_commands(["show run", "show ip int brief"])

Finally, if you prefer to have a file containing a list of commands to send, there is a send_commands_from_file method . This method excepts the provided file to have a single command to send per line in the file.

Response Object

All command/config operations that happen in the GenericDriver or any of the drivers inheriting from the NetworkDriver result in a Response object being created. The Response object contains attributes for the command sent (channel_input), start/end/elapsed time, and of course the result of the command sent.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

conn = IOSXEDriver(**my_device)
conn.open()
response = conn.send_command("show version")
print(response.elapsed_time)
print(response.result)

If using send_commands (plural!) then scrapli will return a MultiResponse object containing multiple Response objects. The MultiResponse object is for all intents and purposes just a list of Response objects (with a few very minor differences).

In addition to containing the input and output of the command(s) that you sent, the Response object also contains a method textfsm_parse_output (for more on TextFSM support see Textfsm/NTC-Templates Integration) which will attempt to parse and return the received output. If parsing fails, the value returned will be an empty list -- meaning you will always get "structured data" returned, however it will just be an empty object if parsing fails.

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>>> structured_result = response.textfsm_parse_output()
>>> print(structured_result)
[['16.4.1', 'IOS-XE', 'csr1000v', '2 days, 22 hours, 10 minutes', 'reload', 'packages.conf', ['CSR1000V'], ['9FKLJWM5EB0'], '0x2102', []]]

Sending Configurations

When using any of the core drivers, you can send configurations via the send_config, send_configs or send_configs_from_file methods which will handle privilege escalation for you. send_config accepts a single string, send_configs accepts a list of strings, and of course send_configs_from_file accepts a string path to a file containing configurations to send. Note that send_configs_from_file -- just like with it's commands sibling -- will treat each line in the file as a configuration element, in this way it behaves much like send_configs.

Lastly, it is good to know that send_config (singular!) will parse the configuration string provided and split it into lines -- this means that the underlying behavior is the same as send_configs, however this method returns a single Response object. This send_config method can be used to send entire configurations to devices in a reliable fashion.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    conn.send_configs(["interface loopback123", "description configured by scrapli"])

If you need to get into any kind of "special" configuration mode, such as "configure exclusive", "configure private ", or "configure session XYZ", you can pass the name of the corresponding privilege level via the privilege_level argument. Please see the Driver Privilege Levels section for more details!

Lastly, note that scrapli does not exit configuration mode at completion of a "configuration" event -- this is because scrapli (with the Network drivers) will automatically acquire default_desired_privilege_level before sending a "command" -- so there is no need, from a scrapli perspective, to explicitly exit config mode at end of the configuration session.

Textfsm/NTC-Templates Integration

scrapli supports parsing output with TextFSM and ntc-templates. This of course requires installing TextFSM and having ntc-templates somewhere on your system. When using a platform driver (i.e. IOSXEDriver) the textfsm-platform will be set for you (based on the driver device type). If you wish to parse the output of your send commands, you can use the textfsm_parse_output method of the response object. This method will attempt to find the template for you -- based on the textfsm-platform and the channel-input (the command sent). If textfsm parsing succeeds, the structured result is returned. If textfsm parsing fails, an empty list is returned.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    response = conn.send_command("show version")
    structured_result = response.textfsm_parse_output()
    print(structured_result)

scrapli also supports passing in templates manually (meaning not using the pip installed ntc-templates directory to find templates) if desired. The scrapli.helper.textfsm_parse function accepts a string or loaded (TextIOWrapper ) template and output to parse. This can be useful if you have custom or one off templates or don't want to pip install ntc-templates.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver
from scrapli.helper import textfsm_parse

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    response = conn.send_command("show version")
    structured_result = textfsm_parse("/path/to/my/template", response.result)

NOTE: If a template does not return structured data an empty list will be returned!

NOTE: Textfsm and ntc-templates is an optional extra for scrapli; you can install these modules manually or using the optional extras install via pip:

pip install scrapli[textfsm]

Cisco Genie Integration

Very much the same as the textfsm/ntc-templates integration, scrapli has optional integration with Cisco's PyATS /Genie parsing library for parsing show command output. While there are parsers for non-Cisco platforms, this is currently just an option for Cisco platforms within scrapli.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    response = conn.send_command("show version")
    structured_result = response.genie_parse_output()
    print(structured_result)

NOTE: If a parser does not return structured data an empty list will be returned!

NOTE: PyATS and Genie is an optional extra for scrapli; you can install these modules manually or using the optional extras install via pip:

pip install scrapli[genie]

TTP Integration

The scrapli response object also contains a ttp_parse_output method, that, as you may have guessed, uses the ttp library to parse output received from the device. Other than the obvious difference that this is in fact a different type of parser, the only difference from a usage perspective is that the ttp_parse_output method requires a template string, string path to a template, or loaded (TextIOWrapper ) template string to be passed. This is because there is no index or mapping of platform:command:template as there is with TextFSM/ntc-templates and genie.

An example ttp file (slightly modified from the great ttp quickstart guide) - in this case we'll pretend this file is called "my_template.ttp":

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interface {{ interface }}
 ip address {{ ip }} {{ mask }}
 description {{ description }}
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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    response = conn.send_command("show run interface GigabitEthernet1")
    structured_result = response.ttp_parse_output(template="my_template.ttp")
    print(structured_result)

NOTE: If a parser does parse data, ttp will return an empty list (as with the other parser methods)

NOTE: ttp is an optional extra for scrapli; you can install these modules manually or using the optional extras install via pip:

pip install scrapli[ttp]

Handling Prompts

In some cases you may need to run an "interactive" command on your device. The send_interactive method of the GenericDriver or its sub-classes (NetworkDriver and "core" drivers) can be used to accomplish this. This method accepts a list of "interact_events" -- or basically commands you would like to send, and their expected resulting prompt. A third, optional, element is available for each "interaction", this last element is a bool that indicates weather or not the input that you are sending to the device is "hidden" or obfuscated by the device. This is typically used for password prompts where the input that is sent does not show up on the screen (if you as a human are sitting on a terminal typing).

This method can accept one or N "events" and thus can be used to deal with any number of subsequent prompts.

One last important item about this method is that it accepts an argument privilege_level -- the value of this argument should be the name of the privilege level that you would like to execute the interactive command at . This is an optional argument, with a default of the default_desired_privilege_level attribute which is normally "privilege exec" or similar depending on the platform.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    interactive = conn.send_interactive(
        [
            ("copy flash: scp:", "Source filename []?", False),
            ("somefile.txt", "Address or name of remote host []?", False),
            ("172.31.254.100", "Destination username [carl]?", False),
            ("scrapli", "Password:", False),
            ("super_secure_password", "csr1000v#", True),
        ]
    )

Telnet

scrapli supports telnet as a transport driver via the standard library module telnetlib or with a custom-built async telnet transport (creatively called "asynctelnet") built on the standard library asycnio.

A few things worth noting:

  • You can set the username and password prompt expect string after your connection object instantiation and before calling the open method -- this means if you have non-default prompts you cannot use scrapli with a context manager and Telnet (because the context manager calls open for you). You can set the prompts using the following attributes of the Channel (or AsyncChannel) object:

    • telnet_username_prompt which defaults to ^(.*username:)|(.*login:)\s?$
    • telnet_password_prompt which defaults to ^password:\s?$

    You can set these values by updating the appropriate attribute, for example: conn.channel.telnet_username_prompt = "somethingneat".

  • If you wish to provide custom prompt values you can provide a string to look for "in" the output from the device, or a regular expression pattern that starts with ^ and ends with $ -- if you don't use the line anchors the pattern will be re.escape'd.

  • When using telnet you may need to set the comms_return_char to \r\n the tests against the core platforms pass without this, however it seems that some console server type devices are looking for this \r\n pattern instead of the default \n pattern.

SSH Config Support

scrapli supports using OpenSSH configuration files in a few ways. For "system" SSH transport (default setting ), passing a path to a config file will simply make scrapli "point" to that file, and therefore use that configuration files attributes (because it is just exec'ing system SSH!). You can also pass True to let scrapli search in system default locations for a ssh config file (~/.ssh/config and /etc/ssh/ssh_config).

SSH transports other than "system" transport may support some subset of the OpenSSH configuration files, but will not provide full support. Asyncssh, for example, will automatically pick up and handle proxy-jumps, SSH keys, and some other items -- this is a 100% asyncssh feature and has nothing to do with scrapli (other than the fact that scrapli allows you to use asyncssh).

NOTE -- scrapli does NOT disable strict host checking by default. Obviously this is the "smart" behavior, but it can be overridden on a per host basis in your SSH config file, or by passing False to the "auth_strict_key " argument on object instantiation.

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from scrapli.driver.core import IOSXEDriver

my_device = {
    "host": "172.18.0.11",
    "auth_username": "scrapli",
    "auth_password": "scrapli",
    "auth_strict_key": False,
    "ssh_config_file": "~/my_ssh_config",
}

with IOSXEDriver(**my_device) as conn:
    print(conn.get_prompt())